Migration, Globalization, and the State
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For example, as businesses grow and become more internationalized they often outsource their production to developing countries where labor costs are lower. This movement of jobs from developed nations to the developing world mitigates certain economic factors leading to migration. In other words, in a global economy jobs can move to potential migrants instead of migrants moving to potential jobs. The impacts of migration are complex, bringing both benefits and disadvantages.
Immigration provides a supply of low cost labor for host countries, while remittances from emigrant workers can be an important source of foreign income for sending nations. On the other hand, immigration can stoke resentment and fear towards newcomers in receiving states, as immigrants are discriminated against, accused of lowering wages and associated with crime, among other complaints. For the economies of sending nations, emigration leads to a loss of young, able-bodied, well-educated and otherwise economically valuable citizens.
The Issue in Depth addresses primarily voluntary economic migration, that is, migrants who relocate to a foreign country as temporary workers or legal immigrants. These categories of migrants are perhaps the most controversial as governments struggle to create a migration policy that effectively acknowledges economic necessity and domestic apprehensions.
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Civil conflict and oppression create different patterns of migration in the form of refugees and asylum seekers. These types of migration, however, are not causally related to globalization and are only briefly discussed below. Next : Migration in an Earlier Era of Globalization. Contact Us. Why Does Migration Happen? Connect With Us. Trade facilitation looks at how procedures and controls governing the movement of goods across national borders can be improved to reduce associated cost burdens and maximise efficiency while safeguarding legitimate regulatory objectives.
Global trade in services is also significant. For example, in India , business process outsourcing has been described as the "primary engine of the country's development over the next few decades, contributing broadly to GDP growth, employment growth, and poverty alleviation". William I. Robinson 's theoretical approach to globalization is a critique of Wallerstein's World Systems Theory. He believes that the global capital experienced today is due to a new and distinct form of globalization which began in the s.
Robinson argues not only are economic activities expanded across national boundaries but also there is a transnational fragmentation of these activities. This means that one pair of shoes can be produced by six different countries, each contributing to a part of the production process.
Cultural globalization refers to the transmission of ideas, meanings, and values around the world in such a way as to extend and intensify social relations. This has added to processes of commodity exchange and colonization which have a longer history of carrying cultural meaning around the globe. The circulation of cultures enables individuals to partake in extended social relations that cross national and regional borders. The creation and expansion of such social relations is not merely observed on a material level. Cultural globalization involves the formation of shared norms and knowledge with which people associate their individual and collective cultural identities.
It brings increasing interconnectedness among different populations and cultures. Cross-cultural communication is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves, and how they endeavour to communicate across cultures. Intercultural communication is a related field of study. Cultural diffusion is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas , styles , religions , technologies , languages etc. Cultural globalization has increased cross-cultural contacts, but may be accompanied by a decrease in the uniqueness of once-isolated communities.
For example, sushi is available in Germany as well as Japan, but Euro-Disney outdraws the city of Paris, potentially reducing demand for "authentic" French pastry. Globalization has expanded recreational opportunities by spreading pop culture, particularly via the Internet and satellite television.
Religions were among the earliest cultural elements to globalize, being spread by force, migration, evangelists , imperialists, and traders. Christianity , Islam , Buddhism , and more recently sects such as Mormonism are among those religions which have taken root and influenced endemic cultures in places far from their origins. Globalization has strongly influenced sports.
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The term globalization implies transformation. Cultural practices including traditional music can be lost or turned into a fusion of traditions. Globalization can trigger a state of emergency for the preservation of musical heritage. Archivists may attempt to collect, record, or transcribe repertoires before melodies are assimilated or modified, while local musicians may struggle for authenticity and to preserve local musical traditions.
Globalization can lead performers to discard traditional instruments. Fusion genres can become interesting fields of analysis. Music has an important role in economic and cultural development during globalization. Music genres such as jazz and reggae began locally and later became international phenomena. Globalization gave support to the world music phenomenon by allowing music from developing countries to reach broader audiences. Bourdieu claimed that the perception of consumption can be seen as self-identification and the formation of identity.
Musically, this translates into each individual having their own musical identity based on likes and tastes. These likes and tastes are greatly influenced by culture, as this is the most basic cause for a person's wants and behavior. The concept of one's own culture is now in a period of change due to globalization.
Also, globalization has increased the interdependency of political, personal, cultural, and economic factors. A UNESCO report  showed that cultural exchange is becoming more frequent from Eastern Asia, but that Western countries are still the main exporters of cultural goods. Between and , both North America's and the European Union 's shares of cultural exports declined while Asia's cultural exports grew to surpass North America.
Related factors are the fact that Asia's population and area are several times that of North America. Americanization is related to a period of high political American clout and of significant growth of America's shops, markets and objects being brought into other countries. Some critics of globalization argue that it harms the diversity of cultures.
As a dominating country's culture is introduced into a receiving country through globalization, it can become a threat to the diversity of local culture. Some argue that globalization may ultimately lead to Westernization or Americanization of culture, where the dominating cultural concepts of economically and politically powerful Western countries spread and cause harm to local cultures.
Globalization is a diverse phenomenon which relates to a multilateral political world and to the increase of cultural objects and markets between countries. The Indian experience particularly reveals the plurality of the impact of cultural globalization. Transculturalism is defined as "seeing oneself in the other". Political globalization refers to the growth of the worldwide political system , both in size and complexity. That system includes national governments , their governmental and intergovernmental organizations as well as government-independent elements of global civil society such as international non-governmental organizations and social movement organizations.
One of the key aspects of the political globalization is the declining importance of the nation-state and the rise of other actors on the political scene.
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William R. Thompson has defined it as "the expansion of a global political system, and its institutions, in which inter-regional transactions including, but certainly not limited to trade are managed". Intergovernmentalism is a term in political science with two meanings. The first refers to a theory of regional integration originally proposed by Stanley Hoffmann ; the second treats states and the national government as the primary factors for integration. Multi-level governance gives expression to the idea that there are many interacting authority structures at work in the emergent global political economy.
It illuminates the intimate entanglement between the domestic and international levels of authority. Some people are citizens of multiple nation-states. Multiple citizenship , also called dual citizenship or multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states.
Increasingly, non-governmental organizations influence public policy across national boundaries, including humanitarian aid and developmental efforts.
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation projects include a current multibillion-dollar commitment to funding immunizations in some of the world's more impoverished but rapidly growing countries. As a response to globalization, some countries have embraced isolationist policies. For example, the North Korean government makes it very difficult for foreigners to enter the country and strictly monitors their activities when they do. Aid workers are subject to considerable scrutiny and excluded from places and regions the government does not wish them to enter. Citizens cannot freely leave the country.
Globalization has been a gendered process where giant multinational corporations have outsourced jobs to low-wage, low skilled, quota free economies like the ready made garment industry in Bangladesh where poor women make up the majority of labor force. This did not translate into workers being able to collectively organize themselves in order to negotiate a better deal for themselves at work.
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Another example of outsourcing in manufacturing includes the Maquiladora industry in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico where poor women make up the majority of the labor force. Scholars also occasionally discuss other, less common dimensions of globalization, such as environmental globalization the internationally coordinated practices and regulations, often in the form of international treaties, regarding environmental protection  or military globalization growth in global extent and scope of security relationships.
An essential aspect of globalization is movement of people, and state-boundary limits on that movement have changed across history. As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased dramatically between the 18th and early 20th century. For example, travel across the Atlantic ocean used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days.
Tourism is travel for pleasure.
Globalization, Migration and the Welfare State
The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets , low-cost airlines , and more accessible airports have made many types of tourism more affordable. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in Some countries — such as those in the Schengen Area — have agreements with other countries allowing each other's citizens to travel between them without visas.
The World Tourism Organization announced that the number of tourists who require a visa before traveling was at its lowest level ever in Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
For example, freedom of movement for workers in the European Union means that people can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country. Globalization is associated with a dramatic rise in international education. More and more students are seeking higher education in foreign countries and many international students now consider overseas study a stepping-stone to permanent residency within a country.
A transnational marriage is a marriage between two people from different countries. A variety of special issues arise in marriages between people from different countries, including those related to citizenship and culture, which add complexity and challenges to these kinds of relationships.
In an age of increasing globalization, where a growing number of people have ties to networks of people and places across the globe, rather than to a current geographic location, people are increasingly marrying across national boundaries.