Mobile Phone Programming and its Application to Wireless Networking
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As given in Figure 1. The user interface framework host all functionality that let us operate the mobile device. Qtopia is one example of that. The mobile phone manufacturer General architecture of the programmable mobile phone. So nearly anything that is in software can be changed on the mobile. The only static part of the phone is the hardware platform. We have grouped those of a mobile smart phone into three classes, namely user interfaces, communi- cation interfaces, and built-in resources.
The user interfaces comprise typi- cally the speaker, microphone, camera, display, built-in sensors, and keyboard capabilities. The built-in terminal resources include the battery, the central processing unit, and the data storage. From our point of view we highlight particularly the communication interfaces, which typically include cellular and short—range capabilities. Indeed, in such a heterogeneous scenario each terminal could fea- ture a particular specialization, from a simple mobile phone for voice calls to advanced terminals with music and imaging devices. In the proposed wire- lessly scalable architecture, a wireless grid of terminals is formed where the connecting links among cooperating terminals are implemented by the short- range air interfaces.
A mobile device broken up into the several capabilities grouped into the user interface, communication interface, and the built-in resources.
Sun Microsystems argued already in for cooperative software: A cell phone has a microphone. It has a numeric keypad. It has a display. It has a transmitter and receiver. That is what it is.
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It has a battery with a certain lifetime. It has a processor and some memory. If it is a European model it has a stored value card. It is a collection of things. It is some collec- tion. Throughout the book we will give some examples for that.
Cross-layer protocol design is the idea of changing layers according to needs. Examples are given within this book. Some protocol layers may be even left out totally or grouped in a new way. At the extreme, it could also change from short-range communication to cellular communication, exchanging the full protocol stack.
In general we distinguish between short-range and cellular communication systems. His- torically the most important communication form is the cellular one. The 1Gs were equipped only with this technology as the main service was voice driven and a connection to the telephone operator network was the only needed wireless extension. In the following we revise shortly some of the communication technologies without claiming completeness. It is more a short revision focusing on the items we need in the later discussion of our programming parts.
As wireless radio communication is prone to path loss, a direct communication of mobile users would only be possible within a given range. But the cellular networks evolved from pure voice service support to data service support. The communication architecture is dominated by a point-to-point communication between a mobile phone and the so-called base station. The latter one can be referred to as the bridge between the wireless and the wired world. In the following, we introduce some examples and tech- nologies for the European communication system GSM and its successors.
GSM is a time division multiple access TDMA system, where users get assigned one or a set of given time slots to commu- nicate. In this case the same capacity as a normal voice call is used.
In case of a good channel condition where no error protection is used, a data rate of In case of a more unreliable wireless channel the full error correction is needed ending up in the same data rate as CSD. Furthermore Reichert Table 1. By bundling the unused TDMA time slots in the GSM cell it provides realistically data rates between 40 and 50 kbps with a theoretical capacity of This means that GPRS can be, and is mostly, billed per data volume and not on a time basis as the circuit switched technologies.
The main application of GPRS is the support of email services and web browsing, which can end up in poor performance in fully loaded cells.https://chancridgeogaena.ml
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The data rate supported by each mobile phone depends on the class, i. The evolution of the cellular technology is shown in Figure 1. The industry is contin- uing to evolve 3G networks. Evolution of the cellular communication systems. HSDPA will achieve up to But development does not stop there. But here we refer to the technologies that have the biggest impact on mobile phone programming and which are found most likely on the mobile phones. Bluetooth was introduced by Ericsson in as a cable replacement for mobile equipment to ease the data exchange between mobile phones, per- sonal digital assistants, laptops, and personal computers.
Bluetooth was designed as low cost technology with low power consumption for short-range communication and can be found now on many mobile phones. Bluetooth started with version 1. In contrast to all existing tech- nologies, Bluetooth provided communication channels with quality of service QoS support even for voice. Bluetooth communication takes place between communication peers, where a master peer coordinates the communication in the group of peer slaves also referred to as piconet. One master and up to seven active peers can communicate at the same time.
Even more peers can be assigned to the communication group, but they need to be parked and cannot participate actively. Slave peers communicate via the master peer with each other, thus no direct communication between the peers take place. Furthermore Bluetooth is able to form so called scatternets where multiple communication groups are pared via bridges. A bridge can be a master or a slave. Using multihop Bluetooth can increase the communication coverage and allow to use more than eight devices active at the same time. For com- munication two types of link exist, namely the synchronous communication oriented SCO link and the asynchronous communication-less ACL link.
Bluetooth is based on a slotted channel with a slot length of 0.
A frame consists of an uplink and a downlink phase with at least one slot of each. Each communication packet is acknowledged by the counterpart peer. The amount of payload data that can be stored within a group of slots depends on whether forward error correction is used or not. Table 1. With Bluetooth version 2. In the future Bluetooth will be merged with the ultra wide-band UWB technology. Direct spectrum made the race as it costs less than the frequency hopper and was not dependent on the line of sight LOS as it was the case with infrared. The further development of So far only the 2.
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For the USA the number of channels is twelve. The same data rate is also supported in the 2. While PCF was intended to be used in access points, the DCF could be used for ad hoc type and infrastructure type of communication. Any com- munication device will scan the wireless medium to make sure it is free for a given time. Once the medium was unused for a given time the device starts to transmit its packet.
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When the packet was received by the counterpart entity successfully it generates an acknowledgement to inform the sender that the packet has received successfully. An unsuccessful transmission can be due to some transmission errors or more likely a collision with another device sending at the same time. As both devices will not transmit their packet successfully when they convey their data at the same time, referred to as collision, they need to retransmit it.