Soviet Russia and religion, (International pamphlets)
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On the same day, authorities in Khabarovsk Khabarovsky Krai detained Ivan Puyda, 39, based on a court order from Magadan.
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The Naberezhnye Chelny City Court displays records of all four hearings. According to the religious freedom monitoring group Forum 18 , Karimov, Myakushin, and Matrashov have appealed their pretrial detention. Anna was released, but her husband was held for two days. He was released on May 24, and the Sverdlovsk District Court ordered him confined to house arrest. The raids were carried out by approximately law enforcement officers. Twenty-six-year-old Vladislav Kolbanov remains under house arrest. The other six remain under travel restrictions while the investigation is ongoing, Svintsov said.
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Forum 18 reported that law enforcement raided four homes in the town of Shuya, western Russia, early on the morning of April Dmitry Mikhailov, 33, was arrested on May 29 , over a month after his home was searched and placed in pretrial custody until July He remains in pretrial detention until September Others whose homes were searched were taken to the local investigative unit for questioning and later released without charge. The Murmansk Region Investigative Committee stated on its website that National Guard officers and FSB officials who led the home searches confiscated computer drives and religious literature.
A video posted to the website shows men wearing camouflage uniforms and helmets forcing open a door with a pry bar. Chernikov said that on several occasions, a woman involved in the investigation invited Tifimov to her home, where audio and video recording devices were in place, and asked him questions given to her by investigative authorities and designed to incriminate him. Tifimov was originally detained until June 12, , but his pretrial detention was extended until October The religious freedom group Forum 18 reported that approximately 60 law enforcement officers, some of them armed, raided eight homes in the city of Ufa, south-central Russia, on the morning of April Investigators confiscated personal belongings, books, and photographs.
At least 20 people were reportedly taken to the Lenin District Investigative Department for questioning and fingerprinting but were later released. One girl was called for questioning, but when she showed up for the meeting with her mother and the director of her school, the investigator failed to appear. Skip to main content.
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Your tax deductible gift can help stop human rights violations and save lives around the world. Topic Free Speech Religious Freedom. April 2, News Release. April 20, News Release. September 5, August 22, Most Viewed August 7, News Release. August 27, Report. The majority of the leaders of the Petrograd Soviet had no intention of taking power. Instead, they wanted the Duma leaders to form a government in line with the doctrine laid down by Karl Marx: That in a country such as Russia, the first step toward a socialist order would be taken by bourgeois democrats.
On March 1, a provisional government was formed. The soviet pledged to support it as long as it adhered to a comprehensive list of democratic principles. The Duma also called on him to stand down.
Guide to the Political Pamphlets. Collection 1871-1966
On March 2, , Nicholas II gave up the throne. The end of the monarchy was marked by scenes of rejoicing throughout the Russian Empire. Symbols of monarchical power—emblems, coats of arms, double-headed eagles, and tsarist statues—were destroyed. Although the Provisional Government saw itself as an interim body to guide the country through the war and the ongoing political upheaval, it nevertheless enacted significant reforms.
Led by Prime Minister Prince Georgy Lvov, a liberal reformer, and Minister of Justice Aleksandr Kerensky—the lone socialist and only government figure who was also a member of the soviet—it swept away the old laws of the tsarist regime against freedoms of speech and assembly. From exile in Switzerland, the Bolshevik leader followed the rapid course of events in Petrograd with frustration. He finally returned to Russia on a sealed train provided by the Germans, who were hoping that his opposition to the war would undermine the Russian war effort.
Even so, Lenin managed to win the Bolshevik Party around to his theses. Mass enrollments of workers and soldiers drawn to his charisma aided his cause. These new members knew little about Marxist theory and valued his efficiency: Why wait to reach socialism in two stages when they could get there in one?
Discontent continued to spread throughout Russia from the cities to the countryside. As part of the wider crisis in authority, the Petrograd Soviet had limited control over revolts in the provinces and agrarian communities. Local towns and regions behaved as if they were independent of the nation. As in , the village commune was the organizing kernel of the revolution in the countryside, as land and livestock were seized. Soldiers had their own committees, which supervised relations with the officers.
Some soldiers refused to fight for more than eight hours a day, claiming the same rights as the workers. For the leaders of the Provisional Government, the preservation of the Russian state depended on the success of the military.
Defeat by Germany could mean a return to the old order and restoration of the Romanov dynasty. Under pressure from the Allies, Russia launched a new offensive in mid-June For two days the Russians advanced, but on the third, they were pushed back by a German counteroffensive. On July 4, throngs of soldiers, workers, and sailors from the Kronstadt naval base marched through the city in armed ranks.
They massed in front of Bolshevik headquarters looking for instructions—but at this crucial moment, Lenin lost his nerve. He gave no call for an uprising. Police stormed the Bolshevik headquarters. Hundreds of Bolsheviks were arrested, and Lenin went into exile again, this time in Finland.
He was the only politician with popular support yet also broadly acceptable to the military leaders and the bourgeoisie. Lvov resigned from office, and on July 8 Kerensky became prime minister.
Kerensky passed new restrictions on public gatherings, restored the death penalty at the front, and resolved to restore military discipline. Eventually he had Kornilov arrested. The program of the new coalition government was no longer bound by soviet principles. Kerensky agreed—but then had a change of heart. The Bolshevik leaders were released.
Soviet politics and the Iranian revolution of 1919-1921
Red Guards organized the defense of the factories. Kornilov was imprisoned with 30 other officers. Condemned on the right for betraying Kornilov, the prime minister was also widely suspected on the left of having colluded—initially, at least—with the general.
Many soldiers suspected their officers of having supported Kornilov, and there was a sharp deterioration in army discipline. In factories, such as this one in Petrograd, the Bolsheviks recruited workers for the Red Guards, a militia that would prove to be an important factor in the revolution and its aftermath. As a consequence, a process of radicalization swept the major industrial cities.
The principal beneficiaries were the Bolsheviks, who won their first majorities in the soviets of Petrograd, Moscow, Riga, and Saratov in early September. From Finland, Lenin urged the Bolsheviks to start an insurrection at once, before the Soviet Congress was due to convene on October These would include his left-wing rivals, the Mensheviks and the Socialist Revolutionaries. Lenin saw an opportunity to seize power for himself and took it.
He returned to Petrograd and convened a meeting of his party on October Lenin then forced through a decision by 10 votes to 2 to prepare an uprising. He believed only a small, well-armed, and well-organized force was needed. His vision won out in the Central Committee. With the Bolshevik conspiracy now public knowledge, the soviet leaders resolved to delay the Soviet Congress until October They needed more time to muster support from the provinces, a delay that fueled suspicions that the Congress would not meet at all.
Rumors of counterrevolution were strengthened when Kerensky foolishly announced his plans to transfer the bulk of the Petrograd garrison to the northern front. Disguised in a wig, Lenin left his hiding place and made his way to the Smolny Institute and ordered the uprising to begin. After a series of mishaps and delays, the legendary storming of the Winter Palace, seat of the Provisional Government, took place on the night of October Most of the Menshevik and Socialist Revolutionary Party delegates walked out in protest—a grave mistake, as it gave the Bolsheviks a monopoly of the soviet.
Few thought the Bolsheviks could hold on for long. The party had a tenuous hold on the capital, where their seizure of power prompted the civil service, post and telegraph service, and banks to strike.